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# FAQ

Last updated: 26 March 2021

### General

#### What is Marian?

Marian is a pure C++ neural machine translation toolkit. It supports training and translation of a number of popular NMT models. Underneath the NMT API lurkes a quite mature deep learning engine with no external dependencies other than boost and Nvidia’s CUDA (with optional CUDNN for convolutional networks).

Due to its self-contained nature, it is quite easy to optimize Marian for NMT specific tasks which results in one of the more efficient NMT toolkits available. Take a look at the benchmarks.

#### Where can I get Marian?

Follow the steps in quick start to get install Marian from our github repository.

#### Where can I get support?

There is a Google discussion group available at https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/marian-nmt. You can send questions to the group by e-mail: marian-nmt@googlegroups.com.

#### Where can I report bugs?

I you believe you have encoutered a bug, please file an issue at https://github.com/marian-nmt/marian/issues.

#### How should I cite Marian?

Please cite the following Marian Demo paper if you use Marian (formerly AmuNMT) in your research:

@InProceedings{mariannmt,
title     = {Marian: Fast Neural Machine Translation in {C++}},
author    = {Junczys-Dowmunt, Marcin and Grundkiewicz, Roman and
Dwojak, Tomasz and Hoang, Hieu and Heafield, Kenneth and
Neckermann, Tom and Seide, Frank and Germann, Ulrich and
Fikri Aji, Alham and Bogoychev, Nikolay and
Martins, Andr\'{e} F. T. and Birch, Alexandra},
booktitle = {Proceedings of ACL 2018, System Demonstrations},
year      = {2018},
url       = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1804.00344}
}


There’s also a bunch of publications that use Marian on our publications page (let us know if you want us to add yours).

#### Where do you announce updates?

See changelog for a curated list of changes or follow us directly on twitter @marian_nmt for highlights.

#### Who is responsible for Marian?

See the list of marian-dev contributors and marian contributors. As marian-dev is our bleeding-edge development repository the main work on marian is happening there. The marian repository is then updated with new versions.

Apart from that marian still contains code for amun our hand-written NMT decoder. Contributions listed for that repository are mostly to amun.

The list of contributors so far:

• Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt, formerly Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań and University of Edinburgh
• Roman Grundkiewicz, University of Edinburgh, formerly Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań
• Hieu Hoang, University of Edinburgh
• Tomasz Dwojak, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, formerly University of Edinburgh
• Ulrich German, University of Edinburgh
• Alham Aji, University of Edinburgh
• Nikolay Bogoychev, University of Edinburgh
• Kenneth Heafield, University of Edinburgh
• Alexandra Birch, University of Edinburgh

#### What’s up with the name?

Marian has been named in honour of the Polish crypotologist Marian Rejewski who reconstructed the German military Enigma cipher machine in 1932.

Marcin (the creator of the Marian toolkit) was born in the same Polish city as Marian Rejewski (Bydgoszcz), taught a bit of mathematics at Marian Rejewski’s secondary school in Bydgoszcz and finally ended up studying mathematics at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, at Marian Rejewski’s old faculty.

The name started out as a joke, but was made official later by public demand.

### Installation

#### Can Marian be run on Windows?

Yes, and both CPU and GPU builds are supported. Read more about Marian compilation on Windows in https://github.com/marian-nmt/marian/vs/README.md.

#### Can I compile Marian without CUDA?

Yes. The CPU only version can be compiled by disabling the CUDA library with the CMake flag -DCOMPILE_CUDA=off. This requires Intel MKL, see here for more details.

#### Why do I get an error __CUDACC_VER__ is no longer supported?

This issue is Boost related as some Boost versions are not compatible with CUDA 9.0+. Updating Boost to 1.65.1+ should solve the compilation error.

### Training

#### How do I enable multi-GPU training?

You only need to specify the device ids of the GPUs you want to use for training (this also works with most other binaries) as --devices 0 1 2 3 for training on four GPUs.

See the documentation on multi-GPU training for details.

#### Does Marian support training on CPU?

Yes, but we do not recommend that as it is much slower than training on GPU.

There is no simple answer as the choice of training settings and good hyperparameters should depend on the model architecture, language pair, and even training data.

You may check our Deep-RNN and Transformer examples for English-German here.

#### How do I chose mini-batch size, max-length and workspace memory?

Unfortunately this is quite involved and depends on the type of model, the available GPU memory, the number of GPUs, a number of other parameters like the chosen optimization algorithm, and the average or maximum sentence length in your training corpus (which you should know!). See this part of the documentation for deeper discussion.

#### How long do I need to train my models?

This is a difficult question. What I usually do as a rule of thumb is to use a validation set as described here and the default settings for --early-stopping 10 as presented here.

#### What types of regularization are available?

Depending on the model type, Marian support multiple types of dropout as described here.

Apart from dropout, we also provide --label-smoothing as suggested by Vaswani et al., 2017.

#### Do you have a Google-style transformer model?

Yes. Please take a look at our transformer example. Files and scripts in this folder show how to train a Google-style transformer model Vaswani et al, 2017 on WMT-17 (?) English-German data.

#### How do I train a model like in Edinburgh’s WMT2017 submission?

Take a look at the examples we have prepared: Reconstructing Edinburgh’s WMT17 English-German system and Reconstructing top English-German WMT17 system with Marian’s Transformer model.

#### How do I train a character-level model?

Convolutional character-level NMT models are not yet supported. We are working on that.

#### How do I train a language model?

Set your monolingual training data file to --train-sets and use --type lm for training a RNN language model or --type lm-transformer for training a Transformer-based language model.

#### How do I train a multi-source model?

Provide two files with source sentences followed by the file with target sentence to --train-sets, for instance --train-set file.src1 file.src2 file.trg and use --type multi-s2s or --type multi-transformer to train a multi-source RNN-based model or multi-source Transformer model respectively.

There are also shared-multi-s2s and shared-multi-transformer model types, which make encoders sharing their parameters.

#### What are the details of your multi-source model architectures?

The multi-source model architecture in Marian is described in this paper. In particular, Section 4.3.

#### Can I train a model with custom pretrained embeddings?

Yes. Please check the --embedding-vectors option.

#### What does the --best-deep option mean?

It is a shortcut for using the Edinburgh deep RNN configuration being equivalent to:

--enc-type alternating --enc-cell-depth 2 --enc-depth 4 \
--dec-cell-base-depth 4 --dec-cell-high-depth 2 --dec-depth 4 \
--layer-normalization --tied-embeddings --skip


#### Does Marian support multi-node training?

Yes, but this is still an experimental feature. For details, see the documentation here.

#### Why there are so many files created while training?

Marian by default keeps the iteration files that may take up quite a bit of space.

When validation is enabled with any metric, you can use the following settings to keep only one model per validation metric that is updated whenever the metric improves:

--valid-metrics perplexity translation
--valid-set data/valid.src data/valid.trg
--overwrite --keep-best


### Validation

#### How do I use a validation set?

Just provide --valid valid.src valid.trg. Be default this provide sentence-wise normalized cross-entropy scores for the validation set every 10,000 iterations. You can change the validation frequency to, say 5000, with --valid-freq 5000 and the display frequency to 500 with --disp-freq 500. See here for more information.

Attention: the validation set needs to have been preprocessed in exactly the same manner as your training data.

#### What types of validation scores are available?

By default we report sentence-wise normalized cross-entropy, but you can specify different and more than one metrics.

For example --valid-metrics perplexity ce-mean-words translation will report word-wise normalized perplexity, word-wise normalized cross-entropy and will run in-process translation of the validation set to be scored with an external validation script.

#### How to display BLEU, METEOR or TER scores for a validation set?

Currently this is possible only by using an external validation script. Such a script takes a file with the translation of the valiadion set as an intput and should run an external tool and return the score. See here for more information.

### Translation

We found that using length normalization with a penalty term of 0.6 and a beam size of 6 is usually best:

./marian-decoder -m model.npz -v vocab.src.yml vocab.trg.yml -b 6 --normalize=0.6


Look at the translation documenation for more advices.

#### Does Marian support CPU translation?

Yes, both marian-decoder and amun allows for decoding on CPU. Marian uses Intel MKL for that, see more details here.

#### Does Marian support batched translation?

Yes. This a feature introduced in Marian v1.1.0. Batched translation generates translation for whole mini-batches and significantly increases translation speed (roughly by a factor of 10 or more). See this part of the documentation for details.

#### Can Marian do model ensembling?

Yes, and you can even ensemble models of different types, for instance an Edinburgh-style deep RNN model and a Google Transformer model, or you can a language model to the mix. See here for details.

#### Are there options to deal with placeholders or XML-tags?

Not yet. This is a difficult issue for neural machine translation.

#### Can I access the attention weights?

Yes and no. marian-decoder can produce hard alignments from RNN-based NMT models using --alignment. amun has even more options for this, but is restricted to a specific model type.

It is in principle not clear how to actually implement that for the transformer as it has a lot of target-to-source attention matrices.

#### Can I generate n-best lists?

Yes. Just use --n-best and the set --beam-size 6 for an n-best list size of 6.

#### How can I make the decoding faster?

Marian is already one of the fastest NMT toolkits available. You may further speed up the decoding using different model optimization techniques taking an inspiration from our submission to the WNMT17 shared task.

### Scoring

#### How can I calculate the perplexity of a test set?

You may adapt the following command for your model file, vocabularies and a test set:

./marian-scorer -m model.npz -v vocab.src.yml vocab.trg.yml -t test.src test.trg --summary=perplexity


If your model had a different number of inputs (only one for a language model or three for a dual-source model) you need to provide all the correct number of vocabularies and test set files in corresponding order.

Omitting the --summary option will print sentence-wise log probabilities.

#### Are Moses-style n-best lists supported?

Yes. Please use --n-best and set your n-best list file as a second argument to the --train-sets option, the first argument should be a file with source sentences.

### Code

#### I would like to contribute to Marian. Where I should start?

Please take a look into CONTRIBUTING.

I usually recommend looking at the Iris and MNIST examples first and familiarise yourself with the computational framework in Marian, and then playing with more advanced models.

Any questions related to the code can be asked on our discussion group or using Github issues.

#### Where can I find a documentation for developers?

We do not have a good code documentation yet. Many classes are documented using Doxygen and the generated documentation is available (here).